Basic définition = Permanent and fundamental character of someone, of a group, which makes its individuality, its singularity
Concept created to understand social relationships between individuals
This notion constitutes an essential tool for think about the place of an individual within a social group or society as a whole. It serves to make the link between the different scales of social analysis and to think of the collective in the singular.
Positive identity VS negative identity
Positive identity is that feeling of having qualities, of being able to influence people and things, of being in control of the environment and of having rather favorable representations of oneself in comparison with others. Positive identity is seen as a sign of adaptation mental and social. Individuals, in order to please themselves, must feel that they can please others. On the other hand, negative identity is a feeling of ill-being, helplessness, the impression of being poorly regarded by others, to have poor appreciation of one’s activities and oneself. These negative perceptions produce messages about personal characteristics, abilities and possibilities of the recipient. In addition, these negative messages can create angst and anticipation of failure.